Brief Description of Old Testament Bible Characters:
Adam (2:20; 3:17, 21; 4:25; 5:5) of the ground or taken out of the red earth. The first human son of God (Luke 3:38), and God’s masterpiece and crowning work of creation.
Eve (3:20) First woman created by God, from rib of Adam
Cain (4:1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 25) acquisition, fabrication or possessed. Eldest son of Adam and Eve, the first man to be born naturally, and founder of the family of Kenites (Kenite is called Kain in the Hebrew).
Enoch (4:17) The eldest son of Cain, who had a city called after him.
Lamech (4:18, 19, 23, 24) A son of Methusael of the race of Cain, who had two wives, Adah and Zillah. Had the same haughty spirit, the same self-confidence, the same disregard of human life, the same absence of reverence for God.
Jabal (4:20) a river, moving or which glides away. Son of the Canaanite, Lamech, by his wife Adah. He became the father of those dwelling in tents and possessing cattle (Gen. 4:20).
Jubal (4:21) playing, ram’s horn or a trumpet. The younger son of Adah, wife of Lamech, and the inventor of musical instruments (Gen. 4:21). Jubilee is from his name, which is used to describe the trumpet employed at the glad time of the Jewish jubilee.
Tubal-Cain (4:22) (Tūʹ bȧl-cān) Son of Lamech, associated with the origin of metalworking (Gen. 4:22). The two elements in his name mean “producer” and “smith.” (Gen. 4:22).
Abel (4:2, 4, 8, 9, 25) meadow, vanity or vapor. The second son of Adam and Eve slain by his brother Cain.
Seth (4:25; 5:3, 8) “placed” or “appointed” third son of Adam and Eve.
Enoch (5:18, 21, 22, 23, 24) “dedicated” – son of Jared who was taken up to God without dying
Methuselah (5:22, 25, 26, 27) “man of the dart” – son of Enoch, grandfather of Noah.
Lamech (5:25, 26, 28) “to make low” – father of Noah.
Noah (5:28, 29, 30, 32; 6:8, 10; 7:6, 11, 13; 9:28, 29) “rest” or “comfort” – last of the ten antediluvian Patriarchs and hero of the Flood.
Shem (5:32; 6:10; 7:13; 9:18, 23, 26, 27; 11:10) “name” – Noah’s oldest son and original ancestor of Israel. Through his line came Abraham.
Arpachshad (10:22, 24; 11:10) third son of Shem, son of Noah, born two years after the Flood
Shelah (10:24; 11:12-15) son of Judah, original ancestor of clan in tribe of Judah.
Eber (10:21, 24-25; 11:14, 16-17) descendant of Shem, ancestor of Abraham, original ancestor of the people associated with the Assyrians.
Peleg (10:25; 11:16) descendant of Shem, ancestor of Abraham (and Jesus), recognized as the ancestor of all the Semitic peoples of Mesopotamia.
Nahor (11:22, 24) son of Serug, father of Terah, grandfather of Abraham.
Terah (11:24, 26, 27, 31, 32) father of Abraham, his religious practices are hotly debated.
Abram/Abraham (11:26, 27, 31; 12:1, 5; 13:2; 15:1; 17:1, 5) “father of multitude”, the first Hebrew patriarch, son of Terah, a descendant of Noah’s son, Shem. Originally known as Abram.
Nahor (11:26, 27) son of Serug, father of Terah, grandfather of Abraham.
Haran (11:26, 27, 28) The third son of Terah, younger brother of Abraham and father of Lot.
Lot (11:27, 31; 12:5; 13:5-13; 14:12; 19:30-38) Lot is Abraham’s nephew who chooses the land of Sodom because of its apparent beauty and fertility.
Joktan (10:25) little, small or dispute. A son of Eber of the family of Shem, from whom thirteen Arab tribes sprang.
Ham (5:32; 7:13; 9:18, 22) Scholars believe Ham is the youngest of Noah’s three sons. Ham asks his brothers to help cover Noah when he ends up drunk and naked.
Cush (10:6) Eldest son of Ham and grandson of Noah and founder of a tribal family (Gen. 10:6-8; 1 Chron. 1:8-10). Also the name of the land where the Cushites dwelt (Isa. 11:11; 18:1). Cushite is translated Ethiopian.
Nimrod (10:8-9) valiant, strong or he that rules. A son of Cush, son of Ham. Nimrod was a mighty hunter and a potent monarch whose land bore his name.
Mizraim (10:6) tribulations. The second son of Ham and father of Ludim, whose descendants were found in Egypt (Gen. 10:6, 13; 1 Chron. 1:8, 11).
Put (10:6) brow or extension. The third son of Ham, Noah’s son (Gen. 10:6; 1 Chron. 1:8), whose dwelling was in Lybia (Ezek. 27:10) and whose descendants became hired servants of the Syrians (Nah. 3:9).
Canaan (9:18, 25, 26, 27; 10:6) lowland or trader. A son of Ham and grandson of Noah (Gen. 9:18-27; 1 Chron. 1:8, 13), and founder of the family of Canaanites (Gen. 10:18). It is also the name of the country in which they dwelt (Gen. 11:31).
Japheth (5:32; 7:13; 9:18, 23, 27; 10:2) beauty, let him enlarge or he that persuades. The second son of Noah, born in the patriarchs’ five hundredth year, and founder of those who spread over the north and west regions of the earth.
Melchizedek (14:18) king of righteousness or justice. The priest and king of Salem, who met Abraham and blessed him.
Eliezer (15:2) Abraham’s chief servant, and “son of his house,” that is, one of his large household. He is named “Eliezer of Damascus” probably to distinguish him from others of the same name.
Moab (19:37) The son of Lot by his eldest daughter. The descendants of the Moabites and Ammonites were closely related, and covered many chief places in Judah. The Israelites were commanded to have no dealings with the Moabites.
Ben-ammi (19:38) son of my people. The son whom Lot’s youngest daughter bore to him and from whom the Ammonite tribe sprang.
Abimelech (20:2, 3, 9, 14; 26:1) A king of Gerar in the time of Abraham. Took Abraham’s wife Sarah as his own when Abraham said she was his sister to protect himself. God called Abimelech to repent and confront Abraham.
Hagar (16:1, 3, 4) Hagar is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis. She was an Egyptian slave/handmaid of Sarai, who gave her to Abraham to bear a child. The product of the union was Abraham’s firstborn, Ishmael, the progenitor of the Ishmaelite.
Ishmael (16:11, 15; 17:18, 20; 25:12, 17) The son of Abraham, by Hagar, Sarah’s Egyptian maid. Ishmael was born when Abraham was eighty-six years of age, and was circumcised when he was thirteen years of age, along with his father and his servants. He received the divine promise that he would beget twelve princes and become a great nation.
Sarai/Sarah (11:29, 30, 31; 12:5; 17:15, 16; 21:1-2; 23:19) Wife of Abraham gave birth to two nations through Ishmael and Isaac.
Isaac (17:19, 21; 21:3; 22:2; 24:16; 25:20) he laughed or laughing one. The son of Abraham and Sarah, who was born at Gerar when Abraham was one hundred years of age and Sarah was about ninety years old. A child of promise from God, whom God called Abraham to sacrifice to Him in an act of obedience.
Esau (25:25; 36:1, 43) hairy. The eldest son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob by Rebekah. His name is associated with his appearance at birth. Gave up his birthright and blessing to Jacob.
Adah (36:2, 4) Wife of Lamech in Genesis.
Oholibamah (36:2, 5) Daughter of Anah and one of Esau’s wives. Also called Judith.
Basemath (36:3) daughter of Elon, the Hittite, One of the wives of Esau.
Jacob (25:26; 35:22-26) The second son of Isaac and Rebekah, and a twin brother of Esau. Jacob appeared a short time after Esau and is therefore called the younger brother. Isaac was sixty years old when Jacob and Esau were born.
Leah (29:16-17, 23-26, 30, 31; 30:9, 11, 13, 14, 16-20; 34:1; 35:23; 4 Wife of Jacob and daughter of Laban. Was switched treacherously by Laban for Rachel in marriage due to her being the oldest daughter.
Reuben (29:32; 35:23; 37:21-22, 29; 42:22, 37; 48:5; 49:3) behold a son or vision of the son. The first-born of Jacob by Leah and founder of a tribal family.
Simeon (29:33; 34:25, 30; 35:23; 42:24, 36; 43:23; 48:5; 49:5) hearing, hears and obeys or hearing with acceptance. The second son of Jacob by Leah.
Levi (29:34; 34:25, 30; 35:23; 49:5) The third son of Jacob by Leah. Levi had three sons, and died in Egypt at the age of 137 (Gen. 29:34; 46:11; Exod. 6:16). His descendants, the Levites, had care of the sanctuary. The Book of Leviticus describes their ministry.
Judah (29:35; 35:23; 37:26; 38:1; 49:8-10) object of praise or praise of the lord. The fourth son of Jacob by Leah, and founder of a tribal family.
Onan (38:2-4, 8-10; 46:12) strong or pain. Second son of Judah, by the daughter of Shua the Canaanite. The method he adopted to evade the object of his marriage with his brother’s widow was evil in God’s sight, and He slew him.
Tamar (38:6, 11ff.) daughter-in-law of Judah, as well as the mother of two of his children, the twins Zerah and Perez. Disguised herself as a prostitute and slept with Judah after dishonoring her.
Perez (38:27-30) bursting through, a breach. A son of Judah and one of the twins Tamar bore, who became the father of a tribal family and an ancestor of Jesus Christ.
Zerah (38:27-30) One of the twins born to Judah by his daughter-in-law, Tamar.
Issachar (30:17-18; 35:23; 49:14) The ninth son of Jacob and the fifth by Leah. Of Issachar as an individual not a word is recorded after his birth.
Zebulun (30:19-20; 35:23; 49:13) The tenth son of Jacob and the sixth of Leah (Gen. 30:20). He was progenitor of three tribal families through his three sons, Sered, Elon and Jahleel, who went down into Egypt with the other sons and grandsons of Jacob.
Dinah (30:21; 34:1; 46:15) the daughter of Jacob, one of the patriarchs of the Israelites, and Leah, his first wife. The episode of her violation by Shechem, son of a Canaanite or Hivite prince, and the subsequent vengeance of her brothers Simeon and Levi, commonly referred to as the rape of Dinah.
Zilpah (29:24; 30:9, 10, 12; 35:26; 46:18) Leah’s handmaid who becomes a wife of Jacob and bears him two sons Gad and Asher.
Gad (30:9-11; 35:26; 49:19) The seventh son of Jacob, first-born of Zilpah, Leah’s maid, and full brother of Asher. A tribe also sprang from Gad.
Asher (30:12-13; 35:26; 49:20) The eighth son of Jacob and second of Zilpah, Leah’s maid and progenitor of a tribe.
Rachel (29:5-6, 9-12, 16-18, 20, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31; second wife of Jacob, and sister of Leah. Jacob worked seven years for Laban to marry Rachel, only to be given Leah instead. Another seven years and Jacob married Rachel.
Joseph (30:22-25; 35:24; 37:2, 3, 5, 23, 28; 39-50) The eleventh son of Jacob and first of Rachel. Sold into slavery by his brothers out of jealousy, and ultimately became a leader of Egypt and savior of his people.
Asenath (41:45, 50; 46:20) Egyptian wife of Joseph.
Manasseh (41:51; 46:20; 48:1, 5, 13, 14, 20) The elder son of Joseph, who was born in Egypt and was half Hebrew and half Egyptian. He was the founder of a tribe.
Ephraim (41:52; 46:20; 48:1, 5, 13, 17, 20) The younger son of Joseph, who was born in Egypt and was half Hebrew and half Egyptian. He was the founder of a tribe.
Benjamin (35:16-18, 24; 42:4, 36; 43:14-16, 29; 10 The youngest son of Jacob and the only one born in Canaan; founder of a tribal family. His mother, Rachel, who died in giving birth to Benjamin, named him with her last breath Benoni “son of sorrow.” Jacob changed the name to Benjamin.
Bilhah (29:29; 30:3-5, 7; 35:22, 25; 37:2; 46:25) Rachel’s handmaid and a concubine of Jacob who bears him two sons, Dan and Naphtali.
Dan (30:3-6; 35:25; 46:23; 49:16-17) The fifth son of Jacob, and first of Bilhah, Rachel’s handmaid. Dan was the full brother of Naphtali and founder of a tribal family.
Naphtali (30:7-8; 35:25; 46:24; 49:21) The sixth son of Jacob and second by Bilhah, Rachel’s maid. Rachel gave her son his name because she had wrestled in prayer for God’s favor and blessing.
Bethuel (22:23; 24:15, 24, 47) abode of god or dweller in god. A son of Nahor by his wife Milcah.
Rebekah (22:23; 24:15-16, 29, 30, 45, 51, 53, 58-61, 64, 67; 25:20, 2) wife of Isaac and the mother of Jacob and Esau.
Laban (24:29, 50-51; 25:20; 27:43; 28:2; 29:1; 31:1; 46:18, 25) The son of Bethuel and grandson of Nahor. Laban was the brother of Rebekah and father of Rachel and Leah. He lived in Padan-aram.
Ephron (23:1-20; 25:9; 49:28-33; 50:13) A son of Zohar a Hittite, from whom Abraham purchased a field with the cave in which he buried Sarah.
Keturah (25:1, 4) Wife of Abraham after Sarah’s death.
Hamor (33:19; 34:2, 4, 6, 8, 13, 18, 20, 24, 26) The prince of Shechem a Hivite. The father of Shechem, who defiles Dinah and is killed by Israel’s sons.
Shechem (33:19; 34:2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 18, 20, 24, 26) a Hivite prince who fell in love with Dinah and violated her. Was tricked into circumcising himself and his tribe by Israel’s sons, then murdered while healing.
Edom (25:30; 36:1, 8, 19, 43) Another name for Esau: hairy. The eldest son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob by Rebekah. His name is associated with his appearance at birth. Gave up his birthright and blessing to Jacob.
Israel (32:28; 37:3; 43:8) The new name of Jacob given by God: The second son of Isaac and Rebekah, and a twin brother of Esau. Jacob appeared a short time after Esau and is therefore called the younger brother. Isaac was sixty years old when Jacob and Esau were born.
Potiphar (37:36; 39:1) Ruling member of the Egyptian leadership, took ownership of Joseph when he was sold into slavery. Threw Joseph into jail after his wife accused Joseph of trying to rape her.
FROM: Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, I Samuel 1:1 – 2:1
Shiphrah (Exod. 1:15) one of two midwives who saved the Hebrew boys.
Puah (Exod. 1:15) one of two midwives who saved the Hebrew boys.
Reuel (Exod. 2:18) = Jethro (Exod. 3:1) The father-of-law of Moses, also known as Jethro
Amram (Exod. 6:20; Num. 26:59) A grandson of Levi, son of Kohath and father of Aaron, Moses and Miriam. Amram died at 137 years of age.
Jochebed (Exod. 6:20; Num. 26:59) Mother of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam.
Aaron (Exod. 4:14; 28:1; 32:2; Lev. 1:7) Brother of Moses and the first High Priest of Israel. Mouthpeice of God on behalf of Moses to Egypt.
Elisheba (Exod. 6:23) Aaron’s wife.
Nadab (Exod. 6:23; 24:1, 9; 28:1; Lev. 10:1-2; 16:1) Elder son of Aaron, destroyed by fire for offering fire upon the altar without being sanctified or appointed.
Abihu (Exod. 6:23; 24:1, 9; 28:1; Lev. 10:1-2; 16:1) The second son of Aaron, who was destroyed with his brother Nadab for offering strange, or unauthorized fire upon the altar
Eleazar (Exod. 6:23; 28:1; Lev. 10:12, 16) The third son of Aaron by Elisheba and father of Phinehas (Exod. 6:23, 25). He was consecrated a priest (Exod. 28:1) and was chief of the Levites
Phinehas (Exod. 6:25; Num. 25:7-8, 11) A son of Eleazar, one of Aaron’s sons, who slew Zimri and Cozbi. He manifested great zeal, was the third high priest of the Jews and discharged his office most faithfully for nineteen years.
Ithamar (Exod. 6:23; 28:1; 38:21; Lev. 10:12, 16) palm-coast or palm tree. The fourth and youngest son of Aaron and Elisheba (Exod. 6:23; 1 Chron. 6:3; 24:1). His consecration, along with Aaron’s other sons is noted in Exodus twenty-eight.
Moses (Exod. 2:10; Deut. 3:23-29; 34:1-12) drawn forth, taken out of the water or a son. The youngest son of Amram and Jochebed, of the family of Kohath. Known as the leader of Israel who rescued the Hebrews from slavery in Egypt, and led them to the Promised Land. Spoke to God as a friend.
Zipporah (Exod. 2:21; 18:2) Moses’s wife given to him by Jethro.
Gershom (Exod. 2:22; 18:3) The first-born son of Moses and Zipporah. He was born in Midian
Eliezer (Exod. 18:4) The second son of Moses and Zipporah to whom his father gave this name as a memento of his gratitude to God.
Miriam (Exod. 15:20) Aaron and Moses’s sister, was struck with leprosy for rebelling against Moses’s leadership.
Amalek(ites) (Exod. 17:8-13; see also Gen. 36:12) warlike or dweller in the vale. Son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau and founder of a tribal family known as the Amalekites
Joshua (Exod. 24:13; Num. 11:28; 13:16; 14:6, 30, 38; 27:18-23) Deu The son of Nun and successor of Moses and author of the book bearing his name. He is also called Hoshea. Led Israel into the Promised Land of Canaan, and defeated the pagan nations.
Bezalel (Exod. 31:2; 35:30; 36:1, 2; 38:22. A man set apart by the Spirit of God to build the tabernacle.
Bezalel (Exod. 31:2; 35:30; 36:1, 2; 38:2). A man set apart by the Spirit of God to build the tabernacle.
Oholiab (Exod. 31:6; 35:34; 36:1, 2; 38:23) A man set apart by the Spirit of God to build the tabernacle.
Molech (Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5) the biblical name of a Canaanite god associated with child sacrifice, through fire or war.
Eldad (Num. 11:26-30) god is a friend or god hath loved. One of the two elders who assisted Moses in the government of Israel.
Medad (Num. 11:26-30) love. An elder who, though not present at the Tabernacle when the Spirit came upon the elders, yet received the gift.
Caleb (Num. 13:6, 30; 14:6, 24, 30, 38; Deut. 1:36) one of the chief spies sent out by Moses. He was courageous and persevered when the other spies became discouraged. He was invincible in driving out giants, completely devoted to God and vigorous in old age. Six times it is recorded of Caleb, “he hath fully followed the Lord.
Korah (Num. 16) The son of Izhar, the grandson of Levi, who with Dathan and Abiram conspired against Moses and Aaron. Korah and his family were devoured by the earth as punishment.
Sihon (Num. 21:21, 23; Josh. 2:10; 9:10) great or sweeping out. A king of the Amorites at the time of Canaan’s conquest. He refused to allow Israel to pass through his land and was defeated at Jahaz.
Og (Num. 21:33-35; Josh. 2:10; 9:10) long-necked or bread baked in ashes. The giant king of Bashan. This man of huge stature, the last of the Rephaim, was slain at Edrei.
Balak (Num. 22:2, 4) waster, emptying or destroys. The King of Moab, and son of Zipper who hired Balaam to curse Israel when, toward the end of their wilderness journeying they were in Balak’s territory.
Balaam (Num. 22:5; Josh. 24:9-10) a pilgrim, devouring or lord of the people. A diviner, son of Beor and resident of the town of Pethor. Balaam was asked by Balak to curse Israel, but was only allowed to bless them as directed by God. Was spoken to by his donkey while riding it.
Zimri (Num. 25:6, 14) A prince of the tribe of Simeon, slain by Phinehas for taking a pagan wife. Rahab (Josh. 2:1; 6:22-25) A prostitute who lived in the land of Jericho. Rahab hid the spies from Israel when they came to see the land, and her family was spared with Israel destroyed Jericho.
Achan (Josh. 7:1, 18-26; 22:20) The son of Carmi of the tribe of Judah. Achan was exposed as the transgressor, and confessing his sin in stealing and hiding part of the spoil taken at the destruction of Jericho, was put to death in consequence.
Othniel (Judg. 3:9-11) powerful one or lion of god. A son of Kenaz, younger brother of Caleb, who, after the death of Joshua, judged Israel for forty years. He is the first to be mentioned among the “Judges”.
Ehud (Judg. 3:15-26a) The son of Gera, the second judge of Israel. A left-handed man who killed Eglon King of Moab in secret as an assassin.
Eglon (Judg. 3:15-26a) circle or chariot. A king of Moab who captured Jericho and who, after his long oppression of the Israelites, was slain by Ehud, son of Gera (Judg. 3:12-17).
Shamgar (Judg. 3:31) Shamgar was the son of Anath, and third judge of Israel after the death of Joshua. His spectacular deliverance of Israel from the Philistines came when he killed 600 men with an oxgoad.
Deborah (Judg. 4-5) Prophetess and the fourth, and the only female, Judge of pre–monarchic Israel in the Old Testament.
Barak (Judg. 4:6) lightning or thunder. The son of Abinoam, a Naphtalite, who, with Deborah, defeated Sisera the leader of the Canaanites (Judg. 4:6; Heb. 11:32).
Sisera (Judg. 4:7, 17-22) Commander of the Canaanite army which held northern Israel in subjection. He was killed by Jael (Judg. 4:21, 22; 1 Sam. 12:9; Ps. 83:9). In his flight after battle with the Israelites under Barak, Sisera, overcome by fatigue, sought shelter in the tent of Jael, who treacherously slew him while asleep—the death prophesied by Deborah.
Heber (Judg. 4:11, 17) The husband of Jael who killed Sisera—a Kenite and descendant of Moses. (Judg. 4:17-22) killed Sisera to deliver Israel from the troops of king Jabin. She was the wife of Heber the Kenite.
Gideon (Judg. 6-8) a cutting down, he that bruises or great warrior. A son of Joash of the family of Abiezer, a Manassite, who lived in Ophrah and delivered Israel from Midian. Known for his bartering with God and asking for signs that God was with him in battle.
Abimelech (Judg. 9) The son of Gideon by a concubine in Shechem who belonged to a leading Canaanite family.
Tola (Judg. 10:1-2) The son of Puah of the tribe of Issachar. This Tola, sometimes identified with the first one, was the first of the five minor Judges, and judged Israel for twenty-three years. He lived and died at Shamar.
Jair (Judg. 10:3-5) A Gileadite who judged Israel for twenty-three years, succeeding Tola in office.
Jephthah (Judg. 11:1 – 12:7) he doth open or set free. A Gileadite, illegitimate child expelled by his brother from the paternal abode. He became a Judge in Israel and delivered the people from the Ammonites. He judged Israel for six years.
Ibzan (Judg. 12:8-10) splendid or active. One of the minor judges who succeeded Jephthah, and who judged Israel seven years and was buried at Bethlehem.
Elon (Judg. 12:11-12) The Zebulonite who judged Israel for ten years (Judg. 12:11, 12). Elon is also the name of a town (Josh. 19:43; 1 Kings 4:9).
Abdon (Judg. 12:13-15) A son of Hillel, the Pirathonite, Abdon judged Israel for eight years, and because of a plurality of wives, had forty sons and thirty nephews, who rode seventy colts.
Manoah (Judg. 13) rest or quiet. A Danite belonging to Zorah, and father of Samson (Judg. 13; 16:31). Manoah was a godly, hospitable man and was against any alliance with the Philistines. A divine messenger brought him word of Samson’s birth.
Samson (Judg. 13:24; 14:1 – 16:31) One of the most renowned of the Hebrew judges, Samson was a son of the Danite, Manoah, who judged Israel for twenty years. As a Nazarite, Samson showed supernatural powers. His lust and pride were his downfall.
Delilah (Judg. 16:4-22) The “woman in the valley of Sorek” whom Samson loved. Convinces Samson to reveal his weakness so that he can be overcome by the Philistines.
Elimelech (Ruth 1:1-3) The husband of Naomi and father of Mahlon and Chilion, Ephrathites of Bethlehem-judah (Ruth 1:2, 3; 2:1, 3; 4:3-9; 1 Sam. 17:12).
Naomi (Ruth 1:2ff.) Ruth’s mother-in-law in the Book of Ruth. Naomi becomes a widow when her husband Elimelech dies, and she and Ruth return to Bethlehem to survive.
Mahlon (Ruth 1:2, 5) sickly or mild. Elder son of Naomi, and Ruth’s first husband who died in Moab.
Chilion (Ruth 1:2, 5) wasting away or complete. One of the two sons of Elimelech and Naomi who married Orpah in Moab and died there (Ruth 1:2; 4:9).
Orpah (Ruth 1:4) a woman mentioned in the Book of Ruth in the Hebrew Bible. She was from Moab and was the daughter-in-law of Naomi and wife of Chilion. After the death of her husband, Orpah and her sister-in-law Ruth wished to go to Judea with Naomi.
Ruth (Ruth 1:4) the title character of the Book of Ruth. In the narrative, she is not an Israelite but rather is from Moab; she marries an Israelite. Both her husband and her father-in-law die, and she helps her mother-in-law, Naomi, find protection. The two of them travel to Bethlehem together, where Ruth wins the love of Boaz through her kindness.
Boaz (Ruth 2:1) strength or fleetness. The wealthy and honorable Bethlehemite, or Judaize, who became the second husband of Ruth the Moabites, and ancestor of David and of Christ.
Obed (Ruth 4:13-17) Son of Boaz, by Ruth, and better than ten sons to her, since through Obed she became an ancestress of Jesus Christ (Ruth 4:17-22; 1 Chron. 2:12; Matt. 1:5; Luke 3:32).
Elkanah (I Sam. 1:1) The father of the Prophet Samuel, in the line of Levi.
Hannah (I Sam. 1-2) Mother of Samuel, known for her prayer in 1 Samuel 1-2 and her faith in God.
Peninnah (I Sam. 1) one of Elkanah’s two wives, briefly mentioned in the first Book of Samuel (1 Samuel 1:2).
Eli (I Sam. 1:9, 12-14, 17) Jehovah is high or my god. The high priest and judge of Israel of the family of Ithamar was priest and judge over Samuel who died when his wicked sons were killed in battle.
Samuel (I Sam. 1:20) Samuel was the earliest of the Hebrew prophets after Moses and the last of the Judges. He was the son of Elkanah of Ephraim (1 Sam. 1:1), and of Hannah, Elkanah’s other wife. Judged Israel until the anointing of the kings – namely Saul and David.
FROM: I Samuel 2:12 – 31:13; II Samuel; Psalms; I Kings 1-11; Song of Songs; Proverbs; Ecclesiastes; Job
Eli (I Sam. 2:12, 34; 4:14-18; see also 1:9) Jehovah is high or my god. The high priest and judge of Israel of the family of Ithamar. He was priest and judge over Samuel who died when his wicked sons were killed in battle.
Hophni (I Sam. 2:12-17, 22, 34; 4:4, 11, 17; see also 1:3) A son of Eli, the high priest and judge who proved unworthy of his sacred offices (1 Sam. 1:3; 2:34; 4:4, 11, 17). Hophni is always associated with his brother Phinehas. The two were partners in evil practices and brought a twice-pronounced curse upon their heads (1 Sam. 2:34; 3). Both were slain at the battle of Aphek, and this coupled with the loss of the Ark, caused the death of Eli.
Phinehas (I Sam. 2:12-17, 22, 34; 4:4, 11, 17; see also 1:3) A son of Eli, the high priest and judge who proved unworthy of his sacred offices (1 Sam. 1:3; 2:34; 4:4, 11, 17). Phinehas is always associated with his brother Hophni. The two were partners in evil practices and brought a twice-pronounced curse upon their heads (1 Sam. 2:34; 3). Both were slain at the battle of Aphek, and this coupled with the loss of the Ark, caused the death of Eli.
Ichabod (I Sam. 4:19-22) the glory is not, where is the glory or inglorious. The posthumous son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli. His name commemorated a tragic crisis in Israel’s history, namely, the great slaughter of the people, including Hophni and Phinehas, and the capture of the Ark by the Philistines.
Samuel (I Sam. 2:18, 21, 26; 3:1-21; 7:15; 8:1; see also 1:20, 22, 24, Samuel was the earliest of the Hebrew prophets after Moses and the last of the Judges. He was the son of Elkanah of Ephraim (1 Sam. 1:1), and of Hannah, Elkanah’s other wife. Judged Israel until the anointing of the kings – namely Saul and David.
Joel (I Sam. 8:1-3) The first-born son of Samuel the prophet
Abijah (I Sam. 8:1-3) A second son of Samuel the prophet. He and his brother Joel were named Israel’s leaders before the kings.
Dagon (I Sam. 5:2-5, 7) God of the Philistines whose statue repeatedly fell and was destroyed when the Ark of the Covenant was placed in its temple.
Saul (I Sam. 9:1-2, 16-17; 13:1; 15:1-35; 16:14, 21, 23; 18:6-16; 28) The first king of Israel, known for his stature and looks. A poor leader whose lust for power drove him to try and kill David and ultimately cost him his kingdom. Died after running himself through with his own sword to avoid capture and humiliation.
Ahinoam (I Sam. 14:50) Saul’s wife, daughter of Ahimaaz.
Jonathan (I Sam. 13:16; 14:1-15, 49; 18:1; 31:6) Son of Saul and best friend of David. Rescued David from Saul’s hands when Saul attempted to kill him. Died in battle.
Ishvi (I Sam. 14:49) The second son of Saul by his wife Ahinoam (1 Sam. 14:49).
Malchi-shua (I Sam. 14:49) king of help. The third son of Saul, slain by the Philistines at Mount Gilboa.
Merab (I Sam. 14:49; 18:17-19) A daughter of Saul.
Michal (I Sam. 14:49; 18:20-29; 19:11-17; 25:44; II Sam. 6:16, 23) A daughter of Saul
Nahash (I Sam. 11:1) An Amorite king who besieged Jabesh-gilead and was defeated by Saul
Ahijah (I Sam. 14:3, 18) A Pelonite, and one of David’s thirty heroes.
Abner (I Sam. 14:50; II Sam. 2:8, 17; 3:27) The son of Ner, cousin of Saul and captain of his army. Because of his relationship to the king and his force of character he exercised great influence during Saul’s reign and afterwards.
Agag (I Sam. 15:8, 9, 20) King of the Amalekites who was spared by Saul against the Lord’s command. Was killed by Samuel and cost Saul the kingdom.
Jesse (I Sam. 16:1, 3, 5; 17:12) Father of David, who attempted to hide David from Samuel when he came to anoint the new king of Israel in Saul’s place.
Eliab (I Sam. 16:6; 17:13, 28). The eldest son of Jesse and brother of David
Abinadab (I Sam. 16:8; 17:13) The second son of Jesse, the father of David.
Shammah (I Sam. 16:9; 17:13) The third son of Jesse and brother of David.
David (I Sam. 16:11-13, 18-19, 21; 17:12-58; 18:10-16, 20-29; II Sam beloved. The youngest son of the eight sons of Jesse the Bethlehemite, the second and greatest of Israel’s kings, the eloquent poet and one of the most prominent figures in the history of the world.
Amnon (II Sam. 3:2; 13:1-22) The eldest son of David by Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, he was slain by Absalom.
Chileab (II Sam. 3:3) perfection of the father. The second son of David by Abigail.
Absalom (II Sam. 3:3; 18:9) father of peace. The third son of David by his wife Maacah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. Absalom attempted to usurp David’s throne, leading Absalom to flee and die when his hair got caught in a tree.
Adonijah (II Sam. 3:4; I Kings 1:5, 9, 18) The fourth son of David and Haggith, born in Hebron. After the death of Absalom, he became the rightful heir to the throne (1 Kings 2:15), but Bathsheba had other designs for her son Solomon who, when secure on the throne interpreted Adonijah’s desire for Abishag as an effort to secure the kingdom.
Shephatiah (II Sam. 3:4) The fifth son of David with his wife Abital.
Ithream (II Sam. 3:5) remnant or abundance of the people. The sixth son of David, born at Hebron. His mother was Eglah (2 Sam. 3:5; 1).
Chron. 3:3). Eglah was Michal and died giving birth to Ithream.
Goliath (I Sam. 17:4, 23) the exile or soothsayer. The famous giant of Gath, who defied the armies of Israel. Was killed by David by a stone to the head, and decapitated.
Ahimelech (I Sam. 21:1-6; 22:11-19) A son of Ahitub and chief at Nob, who was slain for assisting David when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 21:1-8; 22:9-20; 23:6; 30:7).
Abiathar (I Sam. 22:20-21) Abiathar escaped and fled to David in the cave of Adullam when Doeg the Edomite slew his father and eighty-five priests. He went back to Jerusalem with the Ark when David fled from Absalom. He was joint high-priest with Zadok and conspired to make Adonijah king.
Doeg (I Sam. 21:7; 22:9, 18) timid or fearful. Chief of Saul’s herdsmen, an Edomite, who informed Saul of Ahimelech’s help for David. Because of Doge’s report Ahimelech and his companions were slain (1 Sam. 22:7-22).
Achish (I Sam. 21:10-15; 27:2-12; 28:1-2) Son of Maoch and the king of Gath to whom David fled (1 Sam. 21:10-14; 27:2-12). Cared for David and raised him up in his army.
Nabal (I Sam. 25:3, 25, 36-39) prominence or foolish. A wealthy but churlish shipmaster of Maon whose business was in Carmel (1 Sam. 25; 2 Sam. 2:2). Refused to help David and his men when they were on the run, but his wife Abigail convinced David not to kill him.
Abigail (I Sam. 25:3, 14-31, 39-42; 30:5, 18; II Sam. 2:2) Wife of Nabal who convinced David not to murder him. Ultimately became one of David’s wives following Nabal’s death.
Ahinoam (I Sam. 25:43; 30:5, 18; II Sam. 2:2) A wife of David from Jezreel.
Ish-bosheth (II Sam. 2:8-10; 4:5-8) a man of shame. One of Saul’s younger sons who was made king over Israel by Abner. Ishbosheth contested the throne of Israel with David for seven years. Ultimately he was deserted by Abner and murdered in his bed by two of his captains.
Joab (II Sam. 2:13-17; 3:27) The son of David’s half-sister, Zeruiah. This nephew of David became the most overbearing captain in his uncle’s army (1 Sam. 26:6; 2 Sam. 2; 13).
Baanah (II Sam. 4:2, 5-12) A captain of Ish-bosheth’s army and one of his murderers (2 Sam. 4:5-12).
Rechab (II Sam. 4:2, 5-12) A son of Rimmon, a Beerothite, captain of the band who slew Ish-bosheth in his bed, and who was put to death by David (2 Sam. 4:2-9).
Mephibosheth (II Sam. 4:4; 9:6, 11, 13) Descendant of Saul who was physically handicapped following an accident where he was dropped by his nurse. Was shown mercy and grace by King David.
Uzzah (II Sam. 6:3, 6-7) A son of Abinadab who died for touching the Ark.
Nathan (II Sam. 7:2; 12:1-25) A Prophet in the reign of King David. An advisor who called David out on his sin of sleeping with Bathsheba while she was married to Uriah.
Bathsheba (II Sam. 11:2-5, 27) Wife of Uriah the Hittite and then King David. Mother to Solomon, King of Israel.
Uriah (II Sam. 11:6-27; 23:39) The husband of Bathsheba who refused to lay with his wife following David’s sin with Bathsheba. David sent Uriah to the frontlines of battle to die in hopes of covering up his sins.
Solomon (II Sam. 12:24) = Jedidiah (II Sam. 12:25; see also on Solom peace or peaceable. The tenth son of David, and second by Bath-sheba, and the third king of Israel who reigned for forty years. Known for his wisdom and riches, a prolific king who penned Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon.
Tamar (II Sam. 13:1-22) The sister of David’s son Absalom. David’s son Amnon was infatuated with her, and raped her. Absalom murdered Amnon because of this sin, and fled David’s presence.
Jonadab (II Sam. 13:3, 5) Son of Shimeah, David’s brother, and the friend of Ammon the son of David, who is described as “a very subtil man” (2 Sam. 13:3, 32).
Ahithophel (II Sam. 15:12, 31, 34; 16:15, 20, 21, 23; 17:1, 6, 7, 14, 1) One of David’s advisors and “mighty men” – turned to folly when he counseled Absalom to take his father’s harem.
Zadok (II Sam. 15:24, 27) The son of Ahitub and father of Ahimaaz, a priest in David’s time. This Zadok was appointed priest by Solomon in the place of Abiathar, because of his own loyalty (1 Kings 1:8), and the disloyalty of Abiathar (1 Kings 1:7)
Abishag (I Kings 1:1-4) A Shunnamite woman who was brought to David in his old age to comfort him.
Hiram (II Sam. 5:11; I Kings 5:1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12; 7:13, 40, 45; 9:11) The king of Tyre, and friend of both David and Solomon (2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Kings 5:1, 8; 2 Chron. 2:11, 13). A man of eminence and the principal architect sent by king Hiram to Solomon (1 Kings 7:13, 40, 45). Also called Huram.
Sheba (I Kings 10:1, 4, 10, 13) the name of the Arabian home of the Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10:1) and a city in Simeon (Josh. 19:2).
A son of Eli, the high priest and judge who proved unworthy of his son, the last of the early kings of Edom (1 Chron. 1:50, 51). This is the Hadar of Genesis 36:39 who, as a child, escaped massacre under Joab, David’s general.
Jeroboam (I Kings 11:26, 28) First King of Israel, known as a king who “made Israel to sin.” His rule began the fall of Israel and the splitting of David’s Kingdom into two kingdoms.
Shishak (I Kings 11:40) Foreign ruler who Jeroboam fled to and was protected against Solomon. Shishak plundered Jerusalem in the fifth year of Rehoboam.
Rehoboam (I Kings 11:43) freer of the people, the people is enlarged. A King of Israel, the son of Solomon by Naamah, an Ammonitess (1 Kings 11:43; 14:21). Rehoboam rejected wise counsel and pursued the folly of his friends in leadership – leading to the destruction of Israel.
Job (Job 1:1-5, 8, 9; 2:3, 10; 3:1; 6:1; 9:1; 12:1; 16:1; 19:1) The central character of the book of Job. A descendant of Aram, son of Shem, dwelling in Uz, and possibly contemporary with Abraham, and who died at the age of 240 years. References to the patriarch apart from his book are to be found in Ezekiel 14:14 and James 5:11.
Eliphaz (Job 2:11; 4:1; 15:1; 22:1; 42:7, 9) God is fine gold or god is dispenser, a religious dogmatist, basing all his deductions upon a solitary remarkable experience he had had, namely that of a spirit passing before his face, causing his hair to stand up (Job 4:12-16).
Bildad (Job 2:11; 8:1; 18:1; 25:1; 42:9) son of contention, lord adad or old friendship. One of Job’s three friends, a Shuhite, descended from Shuah, Abraham’s son by Keturah (Job 2:11; 8:1; 18:1; 25:1; 42:9).
Zophar (Job 2:11; 11:1; 20:1; 42:9) hairy, expanse or pleasant abode. – One of Job’s friends, a religious dogmatist, resorting to rigorous legal and religious methods (Job 11:3-20). His dogmatism, however, rested upon what he thought he knew.
Elihu (Job 32:2; 34:1; 35:1; 36:1) One of Job’s friends. The son of Barachel the Buzite, the kindred of Ram (Job 32:2). Buz was the brother of Uz and son of Nahor (Gen. 22:21). Buz is also mentioned along with Tema and the Arab tribes (Jer. 25:23).
11 FROM: I Kings 12:1 – 22:53; II Kings 1:1 – 25:30; Obadiah, Joel, Jonah, Amos, Hosea,Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Daniel, Ezekiel
Northern Kingdom Southern Kingdom of Israel of Judah
Jeroboam I (I Kings 12:2, 20; see I Kings 11:26-28;I Kings 14:20) First King of Israel, known as a king who “made Israel to sin.” His rule began the fall of Israel and the splitting of David’s Kingdom into two kingdoms.
Rehoboam (I Kings 12:1, 21;I Kings 14:21) freer of the people, the people is enlarged. – A King of Israel, the son of Solomon by Naamah, an Ammonitess (1 Kings 11:43; 14:21). Rehoboam rejected wise counsel and pursued the folly of his friends in leadership – leading to the destruction of Israel. Shishak (I Kings 14:25-26; see I Kings 11:40) Foreign ruler who Jeroboam fled to and was protected against Solomon. Shishak plundered Jerusalem in the fifth year of Rehoboam.
Asa (I Kings 15:9-24) The third king of Judah who succeeded Abijah. He was the great-grandson of Solomon (1 Kings 15; 2 Chron. 14-16). He was an ancestor of Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:7, 8). Lived holy and followed God.
Hanani (II Chron. 16:7-10) A seer who rebuked King Asa for working with Ben-hadad, king of Syria.
Jehoshaphat (I Kings 15:24; 22:41-44) Son of Asa, one of Judah’s kings who was known for walking with God and living holy.
Omri (I Kings 16:23-28) Father of Ahab, and one of the most important kings of Israel’s history. He reigned for twelve years.
Ahab (I Kings 16:28-33) The son of Omri, and his successor as the seventh king of Israel. Was a selfish king whose wife Jezebel led him to commit murder and atrocities.
Jezebel (I Kings 16:31; II Kings 9:30-36) Wife of Ahab who was known for being ruthless and evil – killing many and threatening to kill the prophet Elijah.
Northern Kingdom Southern Kingdom of Israel of Judah
Elijah (I Kings 17:1ff.; II Kings 2) Known as Elijah the Tishbite, a major prophet in Israel’s history who rebuked the godless, worked miracles, and sought to restore the nation of Israel to worship of God.
Ben-hadad (I Kings 20:1; II Kings 6:24; 8:7.) A general and statesman and who reigned in the time of Ahab king of Israel. He was assassinated by Hazael, who took his place.
Naboth (I Kings 21:2). A Jezerite of the tribe of Issachar, whom Jezebel, wife of Ahab, caused to be put to death to obtain his vineyard adjoining the palace (1 Kings 21; 2 Kings 9:21-26). For this dastardly act doom was pronounced upon Ahab and his house by Elijah.
Micaiah (I Kings 22:8) A prophet, son of Imlah, who foretold the fall of Ahab at Ramoth-gilead.
Elisha (I Kings 19:16, 19-21; II Kings 2:1.; 3:11; 13:20) The son of Shaphat of Abelmeholah, of the tribe of Issachar, the companion and successor of Elijah. A major prophet during the time of Israel’s kings.
Jehoram (II Kings 3:1-2) A son of Ahab, who became king of Israel after the brief reign of his brother Ahaziah. Encouraged Israel to to worship Baal.
Obadiah (N.B. II Chron. 21:8-10, 16-17) Prophet of the book of Obadiah, unknown specifics. Obadiah preached judgement on those who were unfaithful to God, and wrote of the enemy known as “Edom”.
Mesha (II Kings 3:4) king of Moab, son of Chemosh-malech.
Naaman (II Kings 5:1ff.) A Syrian captain in the army of Ben-hadad, king of Damascus. This able commander was cured of leprosy by Elisha the prophet.
Gehazi (II Kings 5:20-27) Servant of Elisha, the man of God, Gehazi was known for being evil when he should have followed in Elisha’s leadership.
Hazael (I Kings 19:15-16; II Kings 8-9, 12-13) Anointed by Elijah as king over Syria. Hazael murdered his master and usurped the throne.
Jehu (II Kings 9:2; 10:1ff., 18-28) King who led a dynastic revolution, resulting in the overthrowing of the religious establishment. An evil king, known by the statement: “Jehu took no heed to walk in the law of the Lord”.
Athaliah (II Kings 11:1, 13-16) Queen of Judah during the reign of King Jehoram, and later became sole ruler of Judah for five years.
Jehoiada (II Kings 11:4, 15-16; 12:2) The high priest who made Joash king, and possibly the husband of Jehosheba, whose presence of mind saved the infant Jehoash from massacre.
Northern Kingdom Southern Kingdom of Israel of Judah.
Joash (II Kings 11:2, 21; 12:1-3) Son and successor of Jehoashaz on the throne of Israel. He was the father of Jeroboam II, it was this king who visited Elisha when he was about to die, and wept over him as a great influence about to be lost to Israel.
Jeroboam II (II Kings 14:16, 23,25-27). Succeeded Joash as king over the ten tribes, and who reigned for forty-one years (2 Kings 13:13; 14:16-29; 15:1, 8; 1 Chron. 5:17; Amos 1:1; 7:9-11). Both Hosea (Hos. 1:1) and Amos describe the temporary prosperity of Israel with the accompaniment of social and moral degeneracy during the reign of Jeroboam II. Under him, Israel regained the territory it lost to its hereditary enemy, Syria.
Jonah (II Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1) the son of Amittai, and the first Hebrew prophet, or missionary, sent to preach repentance to Nineveh. Disobedience led him to be cast overboard on ship and swallowed by a whale.
Amos (Amos 1:1; 7:14-15) prophet of “judgment”; which is the key word of the book he wrote, was a citizen of Tekoa, West of the Dead Sea. Pronounced judgment upon the oppression of the poor, commercial dishonesty, selfish indulgence and idolatrous worship, and was the first prophet to predict the captivity of Israel, and to announce God’s rejection of His chosen people.
Hosea (Hosea 1:1) The son of Beeri and first of the so-called Minor Prophets. Called by God to marry the harlot Gomer to show Israel’s unfaithfulness and God’s faithfulness.
Gomer (Hosea 1:3) The wife of the prophet Hosea, referred in book of Hosea as a “promiscuous woman”, a “harlot”, and a “whore” but Hosea is told to marry her according to Divine appointment.
Jezreel (Hosea 1:4) The symbolic name of Hosea the prophet’s eldest son, who was so named seeing God had avenged the blood of Jezreel.
Lo-ruhamah (Hosea 1:6) A daughter of Hosea, named “Not pitied”, to indicate that Yahweh was no longer to be patient with Israel, the northern kingdom.
Lo-ammi (Hosea 1:9) A son of Hosea, given the name meaning “Not my people” to show God’s impending judgement on Israel.
Uzziah = Azariah (II Kings 15:1; Isaiah 1:1) the son of Amaziah and father of Jotham, king of Judah. In pride burnt incense in place of the High Priest and incurred God’s judgement through leprosy.
Pekah (II Kings 15:25, 27, 37;16:5; Isaiah 7:1) opening of the eyes or watchfulness. Son of Remaliah and a captain under Pekahiah, against whom he conspired in order to reign in his stead. But he reaped as he sowed, for in turn he himself was slain by Hoshea the son of Elah.
Jotham (II Kings 15:32-38) A son of Azariah or Uzziah and king of Judah. He was the father of Ahab, king of Judah (2 Kings 15:32). Little is known of this Jotham apart from his rebuilding of the Temple gates.
Rezin (II Kings 15:37; 16:5; Isaiah 7:1) the last king of Damascus, in the days of Jothan, king of Judah. He was slain by Tiglath-pileser.
Northern Kingdom Southern Kingdom of Israel of Judah
Ahaz (II Kings 15:38; 16:1; Isaiah 7:1, 3, 10) the son of Jotham, king of Judah and father of Hezekiah, Ahaz became the eleventh king of Judah and reigned for sixteen years. Rejected the messages of Isaiah.
Tiglath-pileser III (II Kings 16:7) An Assyrian king who reigned 745-727 BC. His reign was an active and important one, and his expeditions were most successful. He probably died when making one of them.
Hezekiah (II Kings 16:20; 18:1-8) Son and successor of Ahaz as king of Judah. Considered a good king, despite evil predecessors. Showed faith in God in the midst of crisis.
Hoshea (II Kings 15:30; 17:1, 6) Son of Elah and last king of Israel. He became king through a conspiracy in which his predecessor, Pekah, was killed.
Shalmaneser (II Kings 17:3-6; 18:9-12) the god shalmana is chief or peace taken away. The name of several Assyrian kings. This was Shalmaneser IV who succeeded Tiglath-pileser and who invaded Israel and carried off Hoshea and the ten tribes to Assyria.
Sennacherib (II Kings 18:13; 19:37; Isaiah 36:1; 37:21, 37) A son of Sargon who succeeded to the throne after the murder of his father.
Isaiah (II Kings 20:1; Isaiah 1:1; 7:3) Jehovah is helper or salvation is of the lord. The name of the greatest of the Assyrian group of prophets is synonymous with Joshua or Jesus and symbolic of his message. Teacher, reformer, author, prophet, and witness of visions of God.
Merodach-baladan (or Barodach-baladan) (II Kings 20:12) the king of Babylon in King Hezekiah’s time.
Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:1-10; II Chron. 35:25; 36:12, 21, 22) This man who was born a priest but became a prophet by the divine call of God, called Israel to repentance before exile, writer of Jeremiah and Lamentations.
Baruch (Jeremiah 32:12; 36:4) the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseian (Jer. 32:12-16). Jeremiah owed much to this loyal secretary who acted as his scribe while he was in prison: Baruch made a heavy sacrifice when he threw in his lot with Jeremiah and became his scribe.
Hilkiah (II Kings 22:4, 8) High priest in king Josiah’s reign Huldah (II Kings 22:14) Prophetess during Josiah’s reign, was consulted by Josiah and the priests on interpretation of the rediscovered Law in the rubble of Jerusalem.
Josiah (II Kings 21:26; 22:1ff.;23:1-30) the fire of the lord or Jehovah supports. The king of Judah who succeeded his father Amon, when only eight years old, and one of Judah’s good kings, instituted reforms upon discovering the Law.
Northern Kingdom Southern Kingdom of Israel of Judah
Pharaoh Neco (II Kings 23:29) pharaoh the lame. A king of Egypt who fought against Nabopolassar, king of Assyria, slew King Josiah at Megiddo, bound Jehoahaz at Riblah and made Eliakim his brother king in his stead.
Nebuchadnezzar (II Kings 25:1; Daniel 1:1) nebo, defend the boundary. Son of Nabopolassar and king of Babylon, who figures prominently as an enemy of God’s people. Led the Israelites to exile in Babylon, was driven mad by God in his pride and ultimately came to worship the LORD God.
Jehoiakim (II Kings 23:34 – 24:7) Jehovah sets up. The name given by Pharaoh-nechoh to Eliakim son of Josiah, king of Judah, whom he made king instead of Jehoahaz. His reign of eleven years is not favorably viewed by Jeremiah.
Jehoiachin (II Kings 24:8-16) Jehovah doth establish. A son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, who was placed on the throne by Nebuchadnezzar, but only reigned for three months. He was carried away to Babylon and remained a captive until freed from prison by Evil-merodach and given palace favors.
Zedekiah (II Kings 24:17-20; 25:1-2, 7) the last king of Judah before its fall at the hands of the Babylonians. Zedekiah is classed among the evil kings. He was the third son of Josiah to become king. Mattaniah was his original name, but upon his succession to Jehoiachin, Nebuchadnezzar named him Zedekiah.
Nebuzaradan (II Kings 25:8-12) nebo hath an offspring. The captain of the guard left behind in Jerusalem after its capture (2 Kings 25:8, 11, 20; Jer. 39:9, 10).
Gedaliah (II Kings 25:22-25; Jeremiah 40, 41) A son of Ahikam and grandson of Shaphan, king Josiah’s secretary and Governor of Mizpah (2 Kings 25:22-25; Jer. 39:14; 40:5-16; 41; 43:6). This Judean of high birth was the one who protected Jeremiah, whose views he shared, from the anti-Chaldeans. Nebuchadnezzar made him governor over “the poor people left in the land.” He only ruled however, for two months.
Daniel = Belteshazzar (Daniel 1:6, 7, 11, 19) The celebrated Jewish prophet, fourth of the so-called Major Prophets, of royal or noble descent. Daniel was taken to Babylon and trained with others for the king’s service (Ezek. 14:14, 20; 28:3; Dan. 1:6, 21).
Hananiah = Shadrach (Daniel 1:6, 7, 11, 19) decree of moon-god or soft, tender. The name given by the prince of the eunuchs at Babylon to Hananiah, one of the three faithful Hebrew youths (Dan. 1:7; 3:12-30). With his two companions, Meshach and Abednego, Shadrach was miraculously delivered from the burning fiery furnace.
Mishael = Meshach (Daniel 1:6, 7, 11, 19) agile or expeditious. The name given to Mishael, one of David’s friends, by the chief of Nebuchadnezzar’s eunuchs (Dan. 1:7; 2:49; 3). With his other two companions he defied the edict of the king and was miraculously delivered from the fiery furnace.
Azariah = Abed-nego (Daniel 1:6, 7, 11, 19) The name given by the prince of the eunuchs of King Nebuchadnezzar to Azariah, one of the four young princes of Judah who were carried away into Babylon. He was one of the three faithful Jews delivered from the fiery furnace (Dan. 1:7; 2:49; 3).
Belshazzar (Daniel 5:1, 2ff., 30; 7:1; 8:1) bel protect the king or the lord’s leader. The son of Nebuchadnezzar and last of the kings of Babylon (Dan. 5; 7:1; 8:1).
Darius (Daniel 5:31; 6:1; 9:1; Zechariah 1:7) the son of Ahasuerus of the seed of the Medes. He succeeded Belshazzar as king of Babylon at sixty-two years of age.
Cyrus (Isaiah 44:28; 45:1; see also II Chron. 36:22, 23; Ezra 1:1, 2, 7, 8; 3:7) Cyrus, the founder of the Persian Empire, conquered Babylon and was anointed by God to free the Jews from captivity. The prophets frequently foretold the coming of Cyrus. Isaiah, for example, mentioned him by name two hundred years before he was born.
FROM: I Chronicles, II Chronicles, Ezra 1-6, Haggai, Zechariah, Esther,Ezra 7-10, Nehemiah, Malachi
Cyrus (II Chron. 36:22, 23; Ezra 1:1, 2, 7, 8; 3:7; 4:3, 5; 5:13, 14, 17; 6:3, 14) see also Isaiah 44:28; 45:1) Cyrus, the founder of the Persian Empire, conquered Babylon and was anointed by God to free the Jews from captivity. The prophets frequently foretold the coming of Cyrus. Isaiah, for example, mentioned him by name two hundred years before he was born.
Sheshbazzar (Ezra 1:8, 11; 5:14, 16) The prince of Judah made governor of Judah by Cyrus (Ezra 1:8, 11; 5:14, 16). Elsewhere called Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:8).
Jeshua = Joshua (Ezra 2:2; 3:2, 8, 9; 4:3; 5:2; Haggai 1:1, 14; 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7; 12:1) A descendant of Aaron and priest of the sanctuary. Returned with Zerubbabel, and the son of Jozadak, who built an altar and is also called Joshua.
Zerubbabel. Babylonian-born Jew who returned to Palestine in 538 BC. to serve as governor of Jerusalem under Persian suzerainty. The name presumably means “seed [offspring] of Babylon,” referring to someone born in Babylon.
Haggai (Ezra 5:1; 6:14; Haggai 1:1, 3, 12, 13; 2:1, 13, 14, 20) festal or born of a festival day. The tenth of the Minor Prophets, and the first of those to prophesy after the captivity.
Zechariah (Ezra 5:1; 6:14; Zechariah 1:1, 7; 7:1, 8) The prophet in Judah, whose Spirit-inspired book is the eleventh among the Minor Prophets (Ezra 5:1; 6:14; Zech. 1:1; 7:1; 7:8).
Tattenai (Ezra 5:3, 6; 6:6, 13) Persian governor during reign of Darius who wrote letters to Darius questioning the wisdom of allowing Israel to rebuild the city and temple in Jerusalem.
Shethar-bozenai (Ezra 5:3, 6; 6:6, 13) starry splendor. A Persian official who with others attempted to prevent the returned Jewish exiles from rebuilding the Temple.
Darius (Ezra 4:5, 24; 5:5, 6, 7; 6:1, 12, 13, 14, 15; Haggai 1:1, 15; 2:10; king of Persia b.c. (521-485). He allowed the Jews to rebuild the Temple.
Ahasuerus (Ezra 4:6; Esther 1:1, 2, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 19; 2:1, 12, 16, 21; 3:1, 6, 7, 8, 12; 6:2; 7:5; 8:1, 7, 12; 9:2, 20, 30; 10:1, 3) A Persian king who became the husband of Esther. Orders destruction of Jews at advice of Haman, then reverses course and murders Haman after shrewdness of Esther (Hadassah).
Vashti (Esther 1:9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19; 2:1, 4, 17) Wife of Ahasuerus who displeases him and is removed from Queen, initiating new search for Queen and Esther’s rise.
Hegai (Esther 2:3, 8, 15) venerable. Chief Chamberlain of king Ahasuerus, and keeper of women (Esther 2:3, 8, 15).
Mordecai (Esther 2:5, 7, 10, 11, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22; 3:2, 3, 4, 5, 6; 4:1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12,13, 15, 17; 6:3, 4, 11; 7:9, 10; 8:2; 9:4, 20; 10:2, 3) son or descendant of Jair, son of Shimei, son of Kish. He brought up Esther, his uncle’s daughter, and adopted her as his own daughter after the death of her parents. Key individual in book of Esther, pushing Queen Esther to stand for the safety of Israel and guiding her in decisions.
Hadassah = Esther (Esther 2:7, 15, 17, 20; 4:13; 5:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12; 6:14) The cousin and adopted daughter of Mordecai, a member of the Jewish community in the Exilic Period. Became Queen after fall of Vashti, and saved the Hebrews from annihilation at the hands of Haman. Bigthan (Esther 2:21) gift of fortune or giving meat. One of the two chamberlains, keepers of the palace door, whose plot against the king was discovered and defeated by Mordecai (Esther 2:21; 6:2).
Teresh (Esther 2:21) reverence or austere. A chamberlain who kept the door of the palace, and who with Bigthana plotted to murder King Ahasuerus. Mordecai discovered the plot and Teresh was executed (Esther 2:21; 6:2).
Haman (Esther 3:1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7; 4:7; 5:4, 5, 9; 7:6, 7, 8, 9; 8:1, 2, 3, 5, 7;9:10, 12, 13, 14, 24) well disposed. The son of Hammedatha, the chief minister of king Ahasuerus, who is called the Agagite because of his Amalekitish descent (Esther 3:1-5).
Zeresh (Esther 5:10, 14; 6:13) Wife of Haman who encouraged Haman to build gallows to kill Mordecai. Ultimately announced that Haman would die as events unfolded.
Hathach (Esther 4:5, 6, 9, 10) a gift. A chamberlain eunuch appointed by King Ahasuerus to attend Queen Esther. It was through him that Esther learned the details of Haman’s plot against the Jews. He thus had his part in their deliverance (Esther 4:5-10).
Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7, 8, 11, 23; 6:14; 7:1, 7, 11, 12, 21; 8:1; Nehemiah 2:1; 5:14; 13:6) The king of Persia who reigned around the time of Darius, allowed Nehemiah to return to Jerusalem to rebuild wall.
Ezra (Ezra 7:1, 6, 10, 11, 12, 21, 25; 10:1, 2, 5, 6, 10, 16; The famous scribe and priest descended from Hilkiah the high priest, author of Ezra.
Nehemiah 8:1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 13; 12:36) the son of Hachaliah and cup-bearer to king Artaxerxes, a chief man who returned from exile.
Nehemiah (Nehemiah 1:1; 3:16; 7:7; 8:9; 10:1; 12:26, 47) the son of Hachaliah and cup-bearer to king Artaxerxes, a chief man who returned from exile.
Sanballat (Nehemiah 2:10, 19; 4:1, 7; 6:1, 2, 5, 12, 14) the enemy is secret. A Horonite, an enemy of the Jews. He opposed Nehemiah in the building of the wall (Neh. 2:10, 19; 4:1, 7; 6:1-14; 13:28). This most inveterate of Nehemiah’s opponents derided the efforts of repair, and sought to hinder the work of the builders.
Tobiah (Nehemiah 2:10, 19; 4:3, 7; 6:1, 12, 14, 17, 19; 13:4, 7, 8). An Ammonite who with Sanballat and others ridiculed the efforts of the Jews to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 2:10; 4:3, 7). This enemy of Nehemiah and of the Jews was silenced by the diligence of the people.
Eliashib 10 Jeshua was the father of Joiakim, Joiakim the father of Eliashib, Eliashib the father of Joiada, 11 Joiada the father of Jonathan, and Jonathan the father of Jaddua.
12:10–11 Jeshua refers back to the end of verse 7, rather than verse 8. From Jeshua to Jaddua covers the period from 538 B.C. to at least 332 B.C., the end of the Persian period. According to Josephus (Ant. 11.viii), Jaddua was high priest when Alexander the Great passed through the region. That would indicate a late addition to this list.
Geshem (2:19; 6:1, 2) rain. The Arabian who along with Sanballat and Tobiah, sought to oppose the building of the wall by Nehemiah. Sanballat: Neh. 17a; and his friends, Neh. 61; Tobiah and Geshem, Neh. 62a
Shemaiah (Nehemiah 6:10) A son of Delaiah hired by Sanballat and Tobiah to intimidate Nehemiah.
Noadiah (Nehemiah 6:14) Jehovah hath met, assembled or ornament of the lord. A son of Binnui, who had charge of the gold and silver vessels brought back from captivity (Ezra 8:33). Also the name of the so-called prophetess whose evil pronouncements were intended to terrify Nehemiah (Neh. 6:14).
Brand, Chad, Eric Alan Mitchell, Steve Bonds, E. Ray Clendenen, Trent C Butler, and Bill Latta. Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary, n.d.
Elwell, Walter A, and Barry J Beitzel. Baker Encyclopedia Of The Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1988.
H. D. M. Spence-Jones, ed., Index, The Pulpit Commentary (London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1919), 371.
Schoville, Keith N. Ezra-Nehemiah. Joplin, Mo.: College Press, 2001.
The Holy Bible. New York: American Bible Society, 1986.
H. D. M. Spence-Jones, ed., Index, The Pulpit Commentary (London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1919), 371.
Source: Genesis University